Non-Aligned Movement has been advocating to end the nuclear arms race, as a cohesive voice it wants to eliminate the threat of a nuclear war altogether. In the past, one of the main focus areas of NAM was to sought national security of Member Nations through non- involvement in military alliances with the major power blocks. The advent of nuclear weapons has radically changed this traditional concept of security. The traditional security agenda centred on military preparedness based upon conventional weapons and strategy. There could be winners and losers in such a war fought through conventional weapons but the hard learnt fact is that a nuclear war cannot be won and in the end produces more harm than is intended.
Disarmament and nuclear disarmament, in particular, is necessary for world peace. Disarmament has been the cardinal principle of Non-Aligned Movement from its very inception after the Second World War. The successive gatherings of the Member States have repeatedly urged for general and complete disarmament. Peace and disarmament constitute basic principle of the Non-Aligned Movement. Different types of confrontations take place within the global community, confrontations between major nuclear powers, wars of self determination and independence, internal (civil wars resulting from political secessionist movements and armed conflicts between Member Nations that could result in confrontation between the major powers. Non-Aligned countries have always insisted that the United Nations should become a basis for resolution of such conflicts between the major powers and have suggested special sessions on disarmament to draw attention to the problems of nuclear arms race. Attempts to reduce tensions between major power blocks have been a constant endeavour in the recent years.
The Non-Aligned Movement recognises that in certain situations it becomes imperative to engage in an armed struggle. Armed struggle in the context of elimination of exploitation and colonialism is not disapproved by its directive principles. To the Non-Aligned Movement, wars of national liberation and wars of independence are justified and therefore should be supported. The approval to take up arms to resist colonialism clearly distinguished it from a commonly held view of the Non-Aligned Movement as a pacifist group in world politics. Non-Aligned Movement believes in territorial integrity and sovereignty of its Member Nations. Hence, the secessionist and divisive movements are not genuine and do not merit support. However, the movement recognises that internal conflicts cannot be ignored because they can easily turn into international wars.
Nuclear disarmament has always been one of the core agendas of NAM’s principles, a number of members and observers have played an important role in the development of the international Non-Proliferation Regime. For example countries like Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, Sri Lanka and South Africa have at different times in the treaty’s history committed to disarmament principles, The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) works under three principles: Non-Proliferation, disarmament and peaceful use of weapons. The Member States have significantly influenced not only the policies of the treaty that entered into force in 1970, but also the outcome of the subsequent five-year NPT Review Conferences. True to the central principle of ‘unity in diversity’, from the negotiations of the NPT in the 1960s to the latest Review Conference, there have been variations among the NAM states’ views, priorities and approaches to the treaty, which have often been masked by the ‘official’ NAM position. However, its impact on the NPT can be attributed to a variety of factors. As of mid-2011, all but three of the movement’s 120 members were parties to the treaty, out of a total membership of 189 states. The influence over the NPT affairs is not only a function of the Movement’s size but also stems from the commitment, expertise, ingenuity and negotiating skill of a number of leading NAM Member States and observers.