The ever increasing importance of Information Communication and Technology has come with its negative consequences too, which is reflected through the cybercrime. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Cybercrime, also called computer crime, the use of a computer as an instrument to further illegal ends, such as committing fraud, trafficking in child pornography and intellectual property, stealing identities, or violating privacy. Cybercrime, especially through the Internet, has grown in importance as the computer has become central to commerce, entertainment, and government. Most cybercrime is an attack on information about individuals, corporations, or governments. Although the attacks do not take place on a physical body, they do take place on the personal or corporate virtual body, which is the set of informational attributes that define people and institutions on the Internet.
Non-Aligned Movement has taken cognizance of the menace and threat of cybercrime and misuse of information and telecommunications technology in multiple forms of crimes. As such NAM Member States have undertaken a series of legislations to combat cybercrime. A few examples are mentioned below.
In India, The Information Technology Act, 2000 together with Indian Penal Code have adequate provisions to deal with prevailing Cyber Crimes. It provides punishment in the form of imprisonment ranging from two years to life imprisonment and fine/penalty depending on the type of Cyber Crime. Cyber Crime Cells have been set up in States and Union Territories for reporting and investigation of Cyber Crime cases.
In collaboration with Data Security Council of India (DSCI), NASSCOM, Cyber Forensic Labs have been set up at Mumbai, Bengaluru, Pune and Kolkata for awareness creation and training. Programmes on Cybercrime investigation, National Law School, Bangalore and NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad are also engaged in conducting several awareness and training programmes on Cyber Laws and Cybercrimes for judicial officers. Training is imparted to Police Officers and Judicial officers in the Training Labs established by the Government to combat cybercrime. Cyber police stations have been set up.
UAE’s legislation on all forms of cyber terrorism put it at the forefront of countries confronting cyber threats, and signals the country’s seriousness on tackling the issue. The UAE Decree on combating cybercrime protects privacy of information from any use whatsoever by electronic or IT means to forge or produce duplicates of credit cards or civil cards. The decree stipulates punishments on any individual for using any kind of information technology to extort or to threaten others online to force them to engage in, or, for that matter to prevent them from engaging in, a certain act.
The decree criminalizes activities by any person who creates or runs any electronic site to send, transmit, publish or promote online any pornographic material, gambling activities and any other indecent acts. The decree further stipulates punishments for any person creating or running an electronic site to publish information online or through any information technology means to promote any terrorist groups and any unlicensed society, organization or body, to facilitate contacts with their leaders or to solicit new members, promote the thoughts thereof, to finance their activities, to provide funds and actual help for its activities, or, for that matter, to promote the making of incendiary devices, explosives or any devices used in terrorist acts.
In Sri Lanka, the law governing the cyber-crimes is mainly found in the Computer Crimes Act No.24 of 2007 (CCA) while few other legislative enactments provide for the identification of various other offences. With regard to the admissibility of computer evidence, Evidence (Special Provision) Ordinance and Electronic Transaction Act No.19 of 2006 (ETA) provide the requirements that need to be established before the courts in order for the evidence to be accepted as relevant. Cyber-Crime Offences Recognised under the Sri Lankan Legal Framework The most significant legislative enactment enforced in order to recognise cyber-crimes is the Computer Crimes Act No.24 of 2007. The act was put into force with the objective of identifying computer crimes and providing the procedure for the investigation and prevention of such crimes.