Indonesia is the largest archipelago on the planet that consists of over 17000 islands. As such, the country faces a variety of threats from climate change that range from tsunamis to flooding and the vastness of the land complexity only complicates the situation. The frightful memory of the 2004 tsunami disaster where 100 ft high waves swept the Indonesian city of Banda Aceh killing over 1,00,000 people can never be forgotten by the country. Despite being severely affected, the South East Asian country recuperated from the disaster, vowed to fight against climate change and made significantly important announcements at the Paris Climate Summit, 2015.
In 2021, Indonesia launched a long-term strategy for low carbon and climate resilience (LTS-LCCS) which envisages its aim to “rapidly progress towards net-zero emission in 2060 or sooner.” To achieve it, Indonesia expects to work on a variety of climate-friendly actions which will ensure that the emissions peak by 2030 and the country moves to level off the emissions at 540 million tons of Carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050. This is an improvement upon the nationally determined target of 29% greenhouse gas emission reductions unconditionally by 2030 which Indonesia promised to implement at the Paris summit, 2015.
The LTS-LCCR will be crucial to aligning the long-term climate friendly targets of Indonesia with the national and international sustainable development goals, engage non-party stakeholders, enhance innovation etc. To achieve it, the programme stands on four pillars namely human resource development in science and technology, sustainable economic development, equitable development and strengthening national resilience and public sector governance. It also looks at leveraging international cooperation, capacity development, technology collaboration, and global partnership for green investments to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement and the LTS-LCCS.
The mitigation plans under the LTS-LCCS includes plans for the agriculture, forestry and other land use, energy, waste and industry processes and product use sectors, etc. The vision document clearly distinguishes between the various paths that the country can choose to initiate to make a difference. It is explained through three paths namely, the current policy scenario, transition scenario and low carbon scenario (LCCS) that are compatible with the Paris agreement. The plan shows that emissions decrease under current policy scenario is not possible. The transitionary path will definitely reduce emissions but it won’t be enough to reach the Paris agreement target by 2050. However, the long-term approach will not only cut emissions sharply after 2030, it will also limit Indonesia’s emissions to 540 Mton CO2 by 2050.
Energy consumes a disproportionate portion of emissions in Indonesia. The country plans to severely curtail the pollution through shift to green energy sources, raising efficiency, diminishing the peatland emissions, raising renewable energy share in power and transport. Greenhouse gasses reduction is an important objective of the climate-friendly approaches as limiting temperature to 1.5 degree Celsius has become necessary. Under LCCS approach, the greenhouse gasses are set to decline rapidly after 2030 and reach 120Mton CO2 by 2050. Same emission through current policy approach is estimated to be slightly more than double the long-term approach.
The long-term strategy is also more attractive for Indonesia now because of the disruptions in the market in the past two years in the form of the pandemic and the Ukraine war affecting the global supply chains. Fast economic recovery has become a priority for every country now. The low carbon approach needs to be embedded in government policy making such that the results of conscious adaptations of green approach is gradually reflected. Overall, the LTS-LCCS is both a necessary requirement and a voluntary climate- friendly initiative that deserve appreciation.
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