The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Treaty, while celebrating its 30th anniversary in 2017, united around 190 nations together under a commitment to phase down the compelling heat-trapping hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) gases. HFCs are human-made synthetics that utilized in air conditioners, refrigerators, and foam insulation and are potent greenhouse gases that can be thousands of times more potent than carbon dioxide in adding to environmental change.

The Amendment is legally binding and came into power on January 1, 2019, and has been ratified by 20 parties. The objective is to accomplish an over 80% decrease in HFC utilization by 2047. It is evaluated that the phase-down of HFCs under the Amendment could evade up to 0.5°C of global warming weather by the end of the century while enduring to protect the earth’s fragile ozone layer.

The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol is a global agreement to progressively reduce the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The Amendment was agreed upon at the twenty-eighth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol held on October 15, 2016, in Kigali.

In Kigali, delegates worked vigorously to negotiate and arrive at an agreement on a scheduled time that would command nations to phase down the production and utilization of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). After seven years of subsequent consultations, Parties to the Montreal Protocol struck a milestone of a legitimate biding deal to decrease the outflows of power greenhouse effects.

Concerning funding, the Multilateral Fund (MLF) under the Kigali Amendment agreed to provide financial support as well as increment of the energy efficiency with new technology. Subsidizing for R&D and service sector in developing countries has been included. Moreover, the expense of patents, design, and the cumulative cost of royalties have also included as cost elements support by MLF.

With the rapid growth of domestic demand for air conditioners, India perceives the HFC phase-down as an opportunity to upgrade room air conditioner (AC) to be increasingly proficient and ease the damage on its electric grid. In leaping forward, India consented to bring the striving Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol and staunched to bring down production and consumption of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), with high a high global warming potential (GWP), by 85 % before 2047.

The developed nations under the Kigali Amendment have attempted to phase down HFCs by 2036 with regard to baseline years of 2011-2012-2013. It has concurred that the developing nations will have a separate time plan for such phase down. India, along with other developing countries, will have 2024-2025-2026 as the baseline years, with a commitment to freeze the production and utilization in 2028. India has commenced finishing its phase down in 4 phases from 2032 onwards with a total reduction of 10% in 2032, 20% in 2037, 30% in 2042, and 85% in 2047. This agreement encourages adequate carbon space for development in the residential industry while limiting the expense to the economy and consumers during the transition time frame.

India being a signatory to the Protocol since 1992, has been proactive in consistence and assumed a significant role in accomplishing the notable Kigali Amendment a year ago in phasing down Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), potent greenhouse effect adding to global environmental change. It played a genuinely adaptable and supportive role in the entire negotiating process. It has concurred on an indulgent schedule as its consumption of HFCs is just 3% as compared to the other countries such as the USA (37%) and China (25%).

It is, however, tough for Indian to adhere to such agreement understanding along with Paris Pact, particularly when it has set out on a driven “Make in India” Program to expand its industrial production. The country also has to take into consideration the hot climatic conditions and increasing demand for air conditioners, refrigerators, and vehicles with growing middle-class incomes while implementing the program. However, being a responsible country with a global standpoint, the Indian government has deliberately passed the order to stop the production of HFC-23, which is a result of used refrigerant and thereby diminished the emanation by 100 million tons equivalent Carbon dioxide in the next 15 years.

India, “to secure the international agreement on a regulatory regime that served the global expectations, has been a key partner in this accomplishment, and would persist in showing leadership in protecting the health of its people and the world.”

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