Human rights are defined as rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, ethnic origin, colour, religion, language or any other status. We are all equally entitled to human rights without any discrimination. Human rights are interrelated, interdependent and indivisible to one’s social existence. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by the law in the form of treaties -customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law and governance. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.
The experience of ‘human right within countries remains diverse, in some countries it provides one with an empowering and affirmative experience and in some it confines existence to mere stereotypes. At the international level a deficiency of human rights-based systems of governance at the international, provincial and national level is creating a situation of conflict.
Cases of human rights violations are plentiful. These include denial of one’s fundamental rights such as the ‘freedom of speech’ and ‘right to education’ many cases are not even lawfully addressed in a court. Such scenario affects especially those who live below the poverty line have a tendency to live and toil in the shadows, people are frightened to protest or complain are usually denied their fundamental rights and are treated disproportionately thus becoming susceptible to discrimination, exploitation and marginalization. In many countries even the authority remain biased and a prey to discriminatory laws and practices, the violence which subsequently manifests itself is because of deep rooted attitudes of xenophobia.
The Non-Aligned Movement through its policies and decision making advocates and works to uproot such cultural practices while promoting, protecting and intending to provide basic human rights to all disregarding their class or creed; however in certain cases particular focus is on women and children who are most marginalized and are at peril of human rights violations. Mindful of the history and reality of the world in which we live today, NAM’s principles and directive policies demonstrate the fact that it is the developing countries of the world the ones who suffer more intensely from the disregard of international law, from invasions, from the ravages of armed conflict, caused mostly by geopolitical interests of great centres of power as well as from protracted conflicts inherited from colonialism and today’s neo-colonialism.
Human rights through a series of historical struggles and debates have been reaffirmed themselves as universal, undividable, mutually dependent and interconnected and that the global society must handle human rights worldwide in a reasonable and equitable manner. Treating each human as an equal with unprejudiced behaviour towards various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds is the need of the hour. It is the duty of the nation states, despite their political, economic and cultural systems, to uphold and guard all human rights and fundamental freedom of everyone, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Declaration of the Right to Development and other international human rights instruments. Moreover, such policies continue to work en route for the amendment and the systematic adaptation of human rights machinery to present and upcoming needs with the view of promoting and protecting human rights.
Such policies also reaffirm that social equality, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. Thereby, encouraging its Member States to chalk out a coordinated outline to adopt and implement all viewing to bring about a better change for all its populace.
The Non-Aligned Movement has reiterated the need for constant engagements and efforts to further strengthen all forms of human rights for all, including the right to development and for the establishment of democratic institutions and sound economic policies responsive to the needs of the people. In this context, NAM places great emphasis on its core principles, in human rights mechanisms, such as equity, non-discrimination, transparency, accountability, participation and international cooperation, including partnership and commitments in the international financial, monetary and trading systems, and full and effective participation of developing countries in decision-making and norm setting.